Master and learn the Hindi Alphabet (Devanagari Script) in 25+9 consonants

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Woman studying Hindi alphabet

Master the Hindi alphabet (Devanagari Script)


Ever gazed at the swirling lines of the Hindi alphabet and felt intrigued? Welcome to the world of Devanagari, a script that’s not just about letters, but about culture, history, and art. If you’re taking your first steps towards learning Hindi, you’re about to embark on an exciting adventure. Let’s dive into the consonants of the Hindi language, each paired with a Hindi word to illustrate its sound.



Related : 5 Simple Techniques to Perfect Your Hindi Pronunciation

The Hindi Alphabetical Odyssey Begins

Our first stop is ‘‘ (ka), as in ‘कमरा‘ (kamra), which means ‘room’. It’s the first of the velar consonants, where the sound originates from the back of the mouth. Just like a room opens up space for living, ‘‘ opens up the Hindi alphabet series.

Next, we have ‘‘ (kha), found in the word ‘खिड़की‘ (khidki), the Hindi term for ‘window’. This consonant is aspirated, meaning you’ll exhale a bit more breath as you pronounce it. Think of how a window allows air to flow into a room – that’s ‘‘ allowing breath to flow into your speech.

As we move to ‘‘ (ga), consider the word ‘गाड़ी‘ (gaadi), meaning ‘vehicle’. This sound is produced with a bit of a hum in the throat, much like the hum of a vehicle’s engine.

Then comes ‘‘ (gha), as in ‘घड़ी‘ (ghadi), which means ‘watch’ or ‘clock’. This consonant is a bit heavier on the breath, much like the ticking sound of a clock.

‘ (nga), as in ‘संगीत‘ (sangeet), meaning ‘music’, might not start words, but you’ll feel its resonance in the nasal cavity, like the reverberation of music in a concert hall.

The Melodic Middle

Moving ahead with our Hindi alphabets, ‘‘ (cha) represents ‘चाबी‘ (chaabi), which translates to ‘key’. Just like a key unlocks doors, understanding ‘‘ will unlock new sounds for you.

‘ (chha), found in ‘छत‘ (chhat), meaning ‘roof’, requires a bit more aspiration, much like the gust of wind that you might feel standing on a rooftop.

‘ (ja) is for ‘जहाज़‘ (jahaz), the Hindi word for ‘ship’. The pronunciation is straightforward, much like the journey of a ship across calm waters.

‘ (jha), as in ‘झंडा‘ (jhanda), meaning ‘flag’, adds a vibrational quality, fluttering like a flag in the breeze.

And ‘‘ (nya), present in ‘पञ्च‘ (panch), meaning ‘five’, gives us the sound that’s a little softer, like a numeral that isn’t too high or too low.

The Rhythmic Retroflexes

The retroflex sounds start with ‘‘ (ṭa), as in ‘टमाटर‘ (tamatar), which means ‘tomato’. The tongue curls back, tapping the roof of the mouth, just like how biting into a tomato gives that satisfying snap.

‘ (ṭha), found in ‘ठंडा‘ (thanda), meaning ‘cold’, has an aspirated quality, reminiscent of the chill you feel on a cold day.

With ‘‘ (ḍa), we have ‘डमरू‘ (damru), a small drum, and the sound is as sharp and clear as the beat of this musical instrument.

‘ (ḍha), illustrated by ‘ढक्कन‘ (dhakkan), meaning ‘lid’, combines the sharpness of ‘‘ with the breathiness of ‘‘.

And ‘‘ (ṇa), as in ‘कण‘ (kan), meaning ‘particle’, brings a deeper, resonant sound, much like the weight of tiny particles coming together.

The Tender Dentals and Luscious Labials

‘ (ta) comes alive in ‘तारा‘ (tara), meaning ‘star’. It’s a soft touch of the tongue against the teeth, light like a distant star twinkling in the sky.

‘ (tha), found in ‘थाली‘ (thaali), a plate, has a breathy, aspirative quality, much like the warm steam rising from a hot meal on a plate.

‘Da’ as in ‘दरवाज़ा‘ (darwaza), meaning ‘door’, is a more emphatic tap on the teeth, signifying something more substantial, like the solid sound of a door knocking.

‘ (dha), illustrated by ‘धागा‘ (dhaaga), meaning ‘thread’, adds a breathy overlay to the tap, like the whisper of a thread being pulled through fabric.

And ‘‘ (na), as in ‘नाव‘ (naav), which means ‘boat’, is the nasal sound that glides smoothly, like a boat on water.

Continuing the Consonantal Symphony

After navigating through the nasal and sibilant sounds, we are greeted by the labials, which use the lips to articulate their unique voices. These are an important part of the Hindi alphabet.

‘ (pa), as in ‘पतंग‘ (patang), meaning ‘kite’, is a soft explosion of sound, like the gentle launch of a kite into the sky. It’s unvoiced, meaning there’s no vocal cord vibration, just an airy push from the lips.

‘ (pha), present in ‘फूल‘ (phool), which translates to ‘flower’, adds a whispery quality to the ‘pa’ sound. It’s like the hushed rustle of leaves in a garden full of blooming flowers, more aspirated than its softer counterpart.

‘ (ba), found in ‘बारिश‘ (baarish), meaning ‘rain’, resonates with a soft buzz of the lips, much like the steady drum of raindrops during a downpour.

‘ (bha), as in ‘भालू‘ (bhaaloo), which means ‘bear’, combines the buzz of ‘ब’ with a hearty breath, giving it a heavier presence, akin to the formidable yet gentle nature of a bear.

Finally, ‘‘ (ma), illustrated by ‘मकड़ी‘ (makadi), meaning ‘spider’, is a nasal sound where the lips close completely. It’s soft yet certain, like the silent weaving of a spider’s web.

The Semi-Vowels and Sibilants: The Final Flourish

As we approach the end of our Hindi alphabet learning, we encounter semi-vowels like ‘‘ (ya), ‘‘ (ra), ‘‘ (la), and ‘‘ (va), which bridge the gap between vowels and consonants, essential for the melody of Hindi.

The sibilants ‘‘ (sha), ‘‘ (ṣa), and ‘‘ (sa) add a hiss, like the sound of leaves rustling in the wind.

And finally, ‘‘ (ha), as in ‘हवा‘ (hawa), meaning ‘air’, is the breath of life in the language, the final exhalation in our consonantal journey.

The Exotic Touch: Perso-Arabic Consonants

The Hindi script is versatile, it has the ability to assimilate sounds from other languages, and this is exemplified in the Perso-Arabic consonants that have been absorbed into Hindi:

क़‘ (qa), as in ‘क़िला‘ (qila), meaning ‘fort’, brings a depth of sound that’s more guttural compared to its Devanagari counterpart.

ख़‘ (kha), found in ‘ख़बर‘ (khabar), which means ‘news’, has a more pronounced breathiness than ‘ख’ (kha), as if the news is being whispered emphatically.

ग़‘ (gha), as in ‘ग़ज़ल‘ (ghazal), a lyrical poem, offers a raspier, more vibrational sound, akin to the emotive renditions of ghazals.

ज़‘ (za), present in ‘ज़रूरत‘ (zarurat), meaning ‘necessity’, has a buzzier vibration, almost reminiscent of the buzzing bees, denoting urgency.

फ़‘ (fa), as in ‘फ़कीर‘ (fakir), which means ‘ascetic’, provides a softer, more effervescent sound compared to the blowing ‘फ’ (pha).

The Sanskrit Heritage: Ancient Sounds

Further enriching the Hindi alphabets are consonants from Sanskrit, which carry the weight of historical and religious texts:

‘ (ḷa), used in words like ‘पळनी‘ (palani), a type of swing, brings a rounded, sonorous sound that is quite distinct from the ‘ल’ (la).

‘ (ḹa), is a rare sound that carries a heavier resonance, often used in classical and scholarly texts.

‘ (ṛa), found in ‘कऱ्हा‘ (karha), meaning ‘rough’, adds a rolling touch, giving the language a richer texture.

Completing the Consonant Collage

With the inclusion of these additional sounds, our exploration of the Hindi alphabet is complete. From the velars to the labials, from the semi-vowels to the sibilants, and from the Perso-Arabic to the Sanskrit origins, we’ve journeyed through a soundscape that is as diverse as the culture it represents. One more thing is to master the Hindi pronunciation.

Your Invitation to Learn and Celebrate Hindi

Understanding the Hindi alphabet is not just about learning to write or speak; it’s about connecting with centuries of storytelling, philosophy, and art. If this brief excursion through the Hindi consonants has sparked a desire to learn more, we warmly invite you to join our free trial class. Immerse yourself in the beauty of Hindi with our conversational approach that makes learning not only educational but deeply engaging.

The Door to Hindi Awaits You

The rich tapestry of sounds is a testament to the adaptability and historical depth of the Hindi language. As you learn to pronounce each consonant, you’re not just speaking a language; you’re keeping alive a legacy that spans millennia. Take the next step in this linguistic journey—join our free trial class to learn Hindi, and embrace the full spectrum of sounds that the Hindi alphabet has to offer. Your adventure into the heart of Hindi starts with a single syllable. Let’s begin.

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Ash Tayshete


Hi, dear Hindi speaker! I’m Ash and I’ve been teaching Hindi in NYC and on Zoom since 2011.

Ash Tayshete

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